Max Factor & the twins: Perc and Ern

Perc Westmore's toupee patent, USPTO, 1931.

The "Percern" toupee, Max Factor Company. 1934.

the first commercial toupee,1931.

My improved method makes it impossible to detect without the very closest inspection that the hair’upon a head is not the natural growth thereon, and I accomplish this by using a very fine net foundation with an unfinished edge so that the skin is seen through the mesh and the mesh is so fine and inconspicuous when placed over the skin that it is very difficult to detect the unfinished edge. Each hair is attached in such a way that the hairs are uniformly distributed and give the appearance of being attached by natural growth.
— Perc Westmore, USPTO US1845380

The Max Factor Company Wig Room, 1934.


Ern Westmore and Max Factor make final adjustments to study the features of the face for proper makeup and hairdressing. 1933.

the beauty measurer

Max Factor, Perc, and Ern were all in agreement that the newly formed studio make-up industry would benefit from guidelines that they could use to teach the proper application ofcosmetics. This standardized the way makeup used in the studios and it would be used in advertising the makeup brand that was also used in the movies.  The Beauty Measurer could provide them with the data that would reveal the perfect features.